RULIV and its social partners developed a practical booklet which served as a guide to encourage small farmers to preserve their indigenous knowledge of local medicianl plants species. The accessible booklet was written by a Rhodes University-based botanist with extensive experience in working with CBOs. The project affirmed the economic benefits of this indigenous knowledge as a community resource or asset which could play an importnat role in primary health care and traditional disease theory. In both urban and rural areas in South Africa, self medication is a common practice and freshly harvested medicinal plants are used regularly as an initial response to illnesses.